Surrogate Pregnancy

Surrogate Pregnancy


Contents:


What is a Surrogate Pregnancy

Surrogate mother – is a woman that gets pregnant as a result of IVF procedure when there is an embryo inside her with which she is not genetically connected. The cycle of surrogate motherhood includes a procedure when the ovums of an infertile woman are fertilized with the sperm of her husband. Then, these ovums are put into the uterus of a surrogate mother that carries and gives birth to a baby.

Before the procedure of IVF is carried out, genetic parents and a surrogate mother conclude a contract where the conditions of a reward payment and registration of the newborn baby are mentioned.

Genetic mother may be present during the process of labor and at the time when the baby is being taken care of by the doctors at a maternity hospital. She may even get ready for breastfeeding. In order to do it she needs to take special hormonal drugs that provoke lactation.

Cases when it is necessary to use the services of a surrogate mother:

  • when there is no uterus. It may be a birth defect or it the uterus might be removed surgically. For example, maybe, it was necessary to remove it because there was a massive bleeding after the procedure of cesarean section;
  • deformation of the cavity or deformation of the womb neck. This may be either a birth defect or it may occur as the result of illnesses;
  • uterine cavity synechia that can not be cured with the help of any therapy;
  • extragenital and genital pathologies when it is forbidden or impossible to get pregnant;
  • unsuccessful procedures of IVF. The procedure was carried out for several times and there were always high-quality embryos. However, no pregnancy occurred when the embryos were put into the uterus of a mother;
  • if you have any diseases in case of which pregnancy or labor are forbidden (for example, a severe case of cardiac anomaly).

There are the same principles that are the base of surrogate pregnancy as in case of donor ovums usage. Genetic mother from whom the ovums are taken undergoes a procedure of IVF. Simultaneously, the uterus of a surrogate mother is being prepared for the implantation. Special estrogen and progesterone drugs are used. The ovums are taken from the organism of a genetic mother in the process of an easy procedure where there is only a light anesthesia. The ovums are fertilized with the sperm of a patient’s husband and cultivate for several days. In the exact day, the embryos of high quality are put into the uterus cavity of a surrogate mother. The number of these embryos depends on the age of a genetic mother and also on the number of the embryos that were taken.

The possibility of the pregnancy occurrence in case when the services of a surrogate mother are used depends on the age of a genetic mother. In case when there are donor ovums and the services of a surrogate mother are used, the procedure is much more effective. Its rate in the modern medicine is 70-75 %.

Who May Become a Surrogate Mother?

Surrogate Pregnancy 1

The woman that has made a decision to become a surrogate mother may do so out of humane considerations. By doing so, she helps her relative or a close friend that is infertile. Many women become surrogate mothers because they have financial problems – they get a financial reward for carrying and giving birth to a baby. Women that voluntarily agreed to participate in the programme can be surrogate mothers. There also shouldn’t be any contradictions as to getting pregnant or giving birth to a baby in a natural way.

The requirements for surrogate mothers:

  • a woman should be from 20 to 34 years old (this is obligatory if a woman is not a relative or a friend of a couple);
  • being physically and psychologically healthy;
  • a woman should have her own healthy baby.

Examining A Surrogate Mother

In order to participate in the programme a woman should undergo the following examinations:

  • defining blood type and rhesus-factor;
  • a woman should be examined by a therapist that will make a conclusion about her health condition and find out if there are any contradictions for a woman to get pregnant;
  • fluorography (valid for 1 year);
  • you should be examines by a psychiatrist and get his conclusion (only once);
  • general physical examination;
  • general urine test;
  • clinical and biochemical blood test (valid for 1 month);
  • a blood test to detect RW, HIV, НВsАg and antibodies against hepatitis B and C (valid for 3 months);
  • coagulogram (valid for 1 month);
  • an examination that detects antibodies against toxoplasmosis, rubella, CMV and virus of herpes (valid for 6 months);
  • gynecological examination;
  • ultrasound examination of the organs of the pelvis;
  • flora smear (valid for 1 month);
  • examination of the cervical canal material, also the material of vagina and urethra to detect clamidiosis, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasma, gonorrhea, CMV and HSV (valid for 6 months);
  • cytological examination of womb neck smears (valid for 1 year).

Contradictions

Surrogate Pregnancy 2

There are the same contradictions for IVF in the programme of surrogate motherhood and the same number of examinations a married couple should undergo as in the case of IVF procedure. The examinations a married couple should undergo before IVF.

Both of the partners should make:

  • fluorography (valid for 1 year);
  • a blood test to detect RW, HIV, НВsАg and antibodies against hepatitis C (valid for 3 months);
  • a test defining blood type and rhesus-factor.

A wife should:

  • be examined by a therapist that will make a conclusion about her health condition;
  • undergo a gynecological examination (it should be carried out each time before there is an induction of superovulation);
  • undergo a ultrasonic examination of the organs of the pelvis;
  • make a general blood test that includes the time of coagulation (valid for 1 month);
  • make a general urine test;
  • flora smears, cytological examination of a womb neck smear;
  • make an ultrasonic examination of the pancreas gland and of mammary glands;
  • blood hormones: FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, TSH, free T4;
  • cytological examination of the cervical canal flora.

A husband should make or get:

  • a conclusion of the urologist (andrologist);
  • spermogram;
  • a blood test to detect RW, HIV, НВsАg and antibodies against hepatitis C (valid for 3 months);
  • a test defining blood type and rhesus-factor.

The programme of surrogate motherhood is carried out according to the following scheme:

  • a surrogate mother is chosen;
  • the menstrual cycles of a genetic and a surrogate mother are synchronized with the help of GnRH agonists or oral contraceptives;
  • the endometrium of a surrogate mother is prepared for the implantation of the embryo with the help of progesterone and estrogen drugs;
  • stimulation of a genetic mother ovulation with the help of gonadotropins;
  • a genetic mother ovary paracentesis procedure, the process of the ovums being conceived with the husband’s sperm (a donor sperm);
  • the process of putting the embryos in the uterine cavity of a surrogate mother.

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