Today, there is a great number of methods for preventing unwanted pregnancy. These are condoms, intrauterine devices (IUDs), oral contraceptives and many others.
Modern methods of contraception are aimed for preventing unwanted pregnancy. However, emergency contraception can not be used as a regular birth control method.
Emergency contraception is used in cases of:
- committed rape;
- unprotected intercourse;
- the intercourse, which has been interrupted incorrectly;
- condom has slipped or is torn;
- other cases of unprotected intercourse.
Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECPs)
Modern emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are less harmless in comparison with the outdated “Postinor”. They contain antiprogestogen, which is effective in preventing pregnancy and the dose of hormones in the drugs is not high. Therefore, these pills do not cause ovaries function disturbance.
How to Prevent Unwanted Pregnancy?
What can you do in case the ejaculation has occurred into the vagina and the method of contraception has failed (for example, the condom is torn)? Some people, especially young, are very inventive in such situations.
They try to prevent the penetration of sperm into the uterus and avoid conception by the following methods:
- By using chemical contraceptives, such as candles, vaginal tablets, creams (e.g. “Pharmatex”, “Patentex Oval”). Chemical contraceptives can immobilize sperm and make it not capable for fertilizing an egg. However, chemical drugs should be used only according to the instruction. The required time for use is 5-10 minutes before a sexual intercourse. This time is necessary for the distribution of the drug in the vagina. This method of contraception might produce no effect if the intercourse is started before the recommended time. Note that chemical drugs do not work after the intercourse, as the sperm has already split into the cervix.
- By vaginal douching. The purpose of vaginal douching is to remove sperm from vagina. However, this method is considered ineffective. Sperm may remain in vagina even after douching. Besides, some amount of sperm remains in the cervix and is impossible to reach. It is known that spermatozoids can not survive in acidic environment. For this purpose, women add lemon juice to the water for irrigation. However, this may damage vaginal flora and cause yeast infections.
- By using intrauterine devices (IUDs). This method can be effective for emergency contraception if the IUD is installed in the first five days after the unprotected intercourse. However, IUD is preferable for women, who have children. Before installing IUD, a woman should pass a medical examination and a vaginal smear. The contraindications for IUD installation are the existent pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory diseases.
- By using emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Emergency contraception is recommended by the specialists and has a high effectiveness. Nevertheless, this method cannot be used for regular contraception. There are two types of ECPs. To the first type refer the drugs, which contain levonorgestrel (“Escapelle”, “Postinor”). “Escapelle” is administrated once after the intercourse. “Postinor” should be taken 2 times after the intercourse. The other type of ECPs contain mifepristone (“Zhenale”, “Gynepriston”). These modern drugs do not cause such side effects as nausea, vomiting, and intermenstrual bleeding. These drugs are efficient, if taken within 72 hours after the intercourse. However, their efficiency lowers with time. Some gynecologists suggest that it is not necessary to take ECPs if the sexual intercourse has occurred during menstruation or 3 days before its start. The chance of getting pregnant on these days is very small, on condition that a woman has a regular cycle in duration of 28-35 days. Note that the use of hormones may lead to hormonal imbalance in organism, menstrual disorder and acyclic bleeding.