- Symptoms and Signs Measles in Babies
- Diagnosis of the Disease in Kids
- Treatment of Measles at Children
- Prevention of a Disease
- Complications From Measles
- Vaccination Against Measles
Measles Rash in Babies
Measles is an acute contagious viral disease which is transmitted usually by air. Dangerous virus is actively effused in large numbers in external environment by a sick man together with mucus during sneezing or coughing. In children's bodies it enters through the upper respiratory passages (mucous membranes), then goes viral by the blood, damaging skin cells selectively, mucosa of eyes and mouth, respiratory tract.
The source of infection is always a sick man, he is contagious with the past two days of the incubation period till the fourth day of rash. At children from 2 to 5 years — this is a frequent disease, but fairly heavy, so for parents it's useful to know as much information about it.
Symptoms and Signs Measles in Babies
Ironically, but as measles begins even the most astute parent will not notice it . This insidious disease develops in stages, with an initial period can last weeks and does not manifest itself. The child will continue to have fun and play, and a malicious virus thus will poison his body from the inside out. Child measles incubation period: 7-14 days (it is considered from the moment of infection before symptoms appear).
Catarrhal period when at children the first signs appear, resembling all symptoms of a cold :
- lack of appetite;
- sudden weakness;
- general malaise;
- temperature of 38-40°С;
- cough with purulent-mucous secretions from the nose;
- dry, compulsive cough;
- gravel voice;
- swelling, redness of the eyelids;
- conjunctivitis (purulent inflammation of the ocular mucosa);
- liquified stools;
- pain in the abdomen;
- at children of up to 1 year old the lowering of body weight is often registered .
The main symptoms of measles at children (almost three weeks after the first symptoms):
- grayish-whitish small rashes (size — of a poppy seed) in the mouth, on the mucosa opposite the molars;
- after another 5 days appear bright, blending stains (size-up to 10 mm), slightly rising over the skin: they begin to show first, behind the ears, on the forehead, then on the remaining parts of the face, neck, then across the body, at last-on hands and legs;
- small pink spots rapidly increase in size, merge, acquire the preposterous, irregular shape;
- 3 days after intensive skin rash temperature rises again (in most cases) to 40.5 °C.
The rash covers the body of a child from 4 up to 7 days, at first after it remain brownish pigmentation spots, which begin to peel off, even after a couple weeks the skin clears completely. The rash fades away in exactly the same sequence as it originated - from the face to the extremities. Here's how the measles shows at different stages of its development: you need to know about it, not to confuse the disease with other infectious diseases (with the same cold), not to self-medicate and promptly show the child to the doctor.
Diagnosis of The Disease in Kids
The doctor diagnoses on clinical manifestations (described above) and complaints of a small patient.
Additionally can be prescribed:
- common blood and urine tests;
- serological (detection of measles virus antibodies in the serum of a child);
- singling out the virus from blood;
- chest x-ray (done only in exceptional cases);
- electroencephalography (held only when there are complications on the nervous system).
In most cases, the diagnosis does not cause difficulties among doctors.
Treatment of Measles at Children
Disease passes rather difficult at any age, so parents ask a logical question, how to treat measles at a child, what methods today are considered to be the most effective. Specific treatments for the disease have not been developed so far. Introduction in incubation period anti-measles immunoglobulin does not work always right, at a catarrhal stage it has no therapeutic effect. Treatment of measles in children is primarily aimed at removing symptomatic manifestations of disease and keeping the skin and mucous membranes clean.
The basic techniques:
- bed rest;
- taking of antipyretic drugs;
- excessive drinking of water;
- remedies from sore throats;
- taking of expectorant drugs;
- vitamin therapy;
- vasoconstrictor drops from the common cold;
- hygiene in respect of mucous membranes (eyes and mouth), the skin of a child;
- rinsing of eyes with warm water (necessarily boiled), by sodium bicarbonate (2 % solution) several times a day;
- instillation of a solution of sulfacyl sodium, retinol 3-4 times a day;
- cleaning the nose by cotton swabs, previously soaked in hot-vaseline oil;
- lubrication of dry, cracked lips with grease or boric vaseline;
- nutrition with lots of liquids (fruit juices, tea, preserves, juices, kissels).
With uncomplicated forms of the disease the child is treated at home, with the development of complications - in the hospital.
Prevention of a Disease
Child measles can be prevented if you follow the advice of doctors and take all necessary preventive measures against the disease:
- isolation of healthy children from sick ones;
- daily preventive examinations, thermometry of children in the source of infection;
- when identifying measles in a kindergarten or school for children up to 3 years is introduced measles antibody during the first five days after direct contact with a sick child.
Children who are already more than three years old, not inoculated so far, previously not having the measles, having no contraindications, are subject to mandatory vaccination. The children exposed to the sick who hasn't had measles, has not been vaccinated, are imposed to quarantine. Sometimes prevention and treatment are not as effective as should be, and all sorts of complications develop.
Complications From Measles
Health complications of measles usually develops in children under 5 years of age.
This is most often:
- inflammation of the lymph nodes of the neck;
- affected central nervous system
Complications after suffering measles in children is not uncommon, therefore, treatment is necessarily carried out under constant medical supervision. Ideally, the doctor must attend the little patient once every 2-3 days.
Vaccination Against Measles
The most reliable and effective method of prevention is vaccination against measles, which is an artificial, weak infection of the body, with the virus, as a result a protective immunity is produced.
What parents should know about this vaccination:
- after inoculation from 6 to 20 day, temperature may rise, conjunctivitis can appear, forming of small rashes on the body it is harmless and goes away in 2-3 days;
- first vaccination of children against measles is done at 1 year, the second - at 6 years of age;
- the doctors use monovalent or triple vaccine (rubella, measles, mumps);
- inoculation guarantees stable effect of protection against measles within 15 years;
- contraindications to vaccination against measles include such diseases as: acute infections, pathology of blood, heart failure, rheumatic fever, acute nephritis.
Despite the severity of the disease, prognosis in pediatric measles is favorable. Death comes very rarely - only with the development of complications due to late or incorrect treatment.