High Risk Pregnancy

High Risk Pregnancy


High-risk Pregnancy, Know What to Expect

Many pregnant women deal with such diagnosis as a threat of miscarriage. They quite often may hear this term at early stages. A lady should prevent potential threat of miscarriage in advance, before conception, i.e. while planning her pregnancy. If she faced such diagnosis anyway, already being pregnant, she should not worry or panic: she can successfully cope with this situation.

Threat of Miscarriage – What is it?

A possibility of miscarriage is a terrible situation any pregnant woman can face. According to the statistics, spontaneous abortion happens in 10-20% of the cases, among which more than a half falls on the early stages (from the moment of conception to weeks 22-23). The rest of the women face the risk of having miscarriage during the period from 22nd-23rd week to 37th week.

The threat of miscarriage in early pregnancy is more dangerous, because if a woman fails to get the doctor's help in time, the fetus might not be saved. In case of a miscarriage children survive thanks to the modern technology and achievements in medicine. That is why doctors, when they discover the threat of miscarriage, try to prolong the pregnancy (to increase the term of the intrauterine development of the child).

Causes of the Threat of Miscarriage During Early Pregnancy

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Each woman must know factors which can cause a miscarriage. The reasons for such threat may vary. Some of them are genetic. Chromosomal and genetic structure lesions of a fetus are followed by its malformation. Pregnancy can self-terminate during the time from conception to the 8th week, if the lesions are incompatible with life. If pathologies are compatible with life (for instance, Patau, Edwards, or Down syndromes), it does not necessarily end with miscarriage, but the threat of it will remain all through the pregnancy.

The fair sex is susceptible to various infections during the pregnancy. And they do not pass by leaving no trace. Even those illnesses which seem to be the most harmless ones can cause tragic consequences. Infections often lead to miscarriages. Only proper and timely treatment can prevent the death of the fetus. Pregnancy may self-terminate due to immunological causes. For example, some women with Rh-negative who are pregnant with an Rh-positive baby may face rhesus conflict: mother's immunity may react to the fetus inadequately, because it is half-foreign for her organism. However, it happens only to 30 % of the women. The immunity of the rest 70% does not react to the fact that the fetus has an opposite Rh factor.

Another reason for the threat of miscarriage during early stages of pregnancy is hormonal imbalance. It is known that pregnancy is supported by certain hormones produced in a female organism. Any aberration may negatively affect the woman's well-being. For example, one of the reasons for a miscarriage may be hyperprolactinemia, when prolactin level is high. This hormone interferes with production of the key pregnancy supporting hormone – progesterone. If the level of the latter lowers, it can cause miscarriage.

Another reason for termination of the state of expecting a baby is hyperandrogenism, which involves rising level of male sex hormones production in a female organism. Thyroid work violation is one more thing which can possibly cause miscarriage. For the normal course of pregnancy thyroid hormones are very important. Pregnancy is both under risk when thyroid hyper- or hypofunction happens.

What also presents the threat of miscarriage during early pregnancy is cervix and uterine isthmus pathological condition, which is called cervical incompetence. They are not able to hold the growing fetus. Normally, at such state a miscarriage happens during weeks 12-18. Diagnostics which were made early can help avoid tragic consequences, because it is possible to correct the pathology. Genitals structure anomalies can lead to a miscarriage. Lesions in the uterus anatomic structure (two-horned uterus, a membrane in its cavity) are often combined with sex hormones shortage. All this is the reason for deficiency of the muscle layer of the organ where the baby is to be carried.

Different traumas may affect pregnancy. Concussions are especially dangerous: the traumas from the past, which violated its blood circulation, can remind of themselves after conception. Thanks to the modern anomalies diagnostics, the threat of miscarriage can be avoided. If any smallest symptoms of such state appear, you must go to the hospital for help.

Symptoms of the Threat of Miscarriage

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The possible signs of an oncoming miscarriage are dragging pain in the abdomen and backaches. At the beginning of the pregnancy you can feel some discomfort on the sides of the abdomen. They have nothing to do with miscarriage, because they are related to the changes in the uterine ligaments.

Blood discharged from the genitals may be a sign of the present threat of miscarriage. Unfortunately, some women mistake it for their menses. This opinion is absolutely incorrect. Menstruation is not possible during pregnancy. Even a small amount of blood discharges is a signal of an unfavorable course of pregnancy. During early stages the reason for such thing is detachment of the ovum.

Uterine hypertonus is another symptom of the threat of miscarriage at early stages. An increased uterine tonus in the first trimester may be located on the front or back wall of the uterus. The woman cannot feel it, but ultrasonography identifies it. Such state can be a result of psychological stress. Doctor prescribes the necessary spasmolytic medicine to such woman and recommends her doing another US in 10 days.

In a state called total hypertonus uterus becomes stony, and soreness appears. For doctors it is a sign of the threat of a miscarriage. The earlier it gets diagnosed, the easier it will be to maintain pregnancy, so, it is really important to control your body condition, and if any suspicions take place, get the doctors’ help.

Possible Treatment in Case of the Threat of Miscarriage

If the state of an expecting woman does not cause any fears, the therapist can assign ambulatory treatment. The pregnant woman will have to maintain psychological as well as physical calmness. Some women get anti-anxiety drugs prescribed if necessary, because they may warry and stress out a lot about possible threats to a baby they bear under their hearts.

When the threat of miscarriage is severe, the woman is hospitalized in gynecology department. She becomes isolated from her relatives, friends, and work. It does much good to many women. It makes it easier to focus on her baby and leave all problems and worries behind.

A woman put into a medical institution feels special protection, because in case it becomes necessary, she will quickly get qualified help. Specific treatment methods of the threat of miscarriage at the early stages depend on the reason behind the appearance of such threat. For example, if there is a possibility of a miscarriage due to hormonal imbalance, then doctors prescribe certain hormones which aid the normal course of pregnancy.

If a US and an examination identify cervical incompetence, then doctors put stitches on the cervix, which prevent ovum from being let out of the organ. The operation is performed under general anesthesia with the use of uterus-relaxing medication. In case of discovering immunologic factors, the treatment of the threat of miscarriage during early pregnancy is aimed at suppressing production of antibodies.

If the woman is identified to have a uterine tonus, then she gets prescription to take drugs which relieve uterine muscle spasms. Most commonly, such medicine is injected with a dropper. If a woman has infectious, chronic, or inflammatory diseases, doctor prescribes the corresponding treatment.

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