- How Dangerous is CMV During Pregnancy?
- CMV During Pregnancy
- What to Do if You Have Been Infected By CMV During Pregnancy?
- Is it Necessary to Abort?
- How to Treat CMV During Pregnancy?
CMV in Pregnancy
The virus, which is talked about, is met very often throughout the world. Its name – is cytomegalovirus (CMV). One feature which unites it with herpes viruses, rubella, toxoplasmosis and other similar infections is that the cytomegalovirus constitutes big danger to pregnant women, as it causes congenital defects of a baby.
Statistical facts are unfavorable: there are statements that about 40-100 % of people of our planet are carriers of this virus. And these are practically all people. It can be easily explained by the simplicity of passing of cytomegalovirus: through saliva, urine, during sexual intercourse. That is, there is enough one kiss, one sneezing or just to use one spoon while eating – and that is done – infection. As well as many infections, during pregnancy cytomegalovirus, having got into mother’s organism, can make transplacental infection of the baby. There is a danger of such infection and during breastfeeding as the virus gets also into breast milk.
How Dangerous is CMV During Pregnancy?
The danger level directly depends upon the period of mother’s disease. If the woman has got cytomegalovirus before conception of a baby, then the risk is minimal. Generally during the whole pregnancy it stays in sleep mode, without showing any signs of action. The virus can “wake up”, that is become active during pregnancy, only in a few women (approximately one or two women from hundred). In a case when infection of mother happens already during pregnancy, the risk of passing of the infection to a fetus increases and makes already 30-40%. Then the baby can be born already with congenital CMV.
CMV During Pregnancy
The doctor conducting pregnancy can recommend you to be examined on the presents of CMV in the organism. Then it is necessary to make laboratory tests on TORCH infection. They cover toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus. If such tests have not been made by the woman, then this test is strictly obligatory.
When you are interested in a question whether your organism is capable to resist to cytomegalovirus, it is necessary to make tests on presence of antibodies to CMV in the organism. But if there is no pregnancy, and a woman is only planning it, it will be useful to study the following information: cytomegalovirus and planning of pregnancy.
What to Do if You Have Been Infected By CMV During Pregnancy?
If the infection has happened, the sequence of moments is very important. In particular: when a woman is ill for the first time, it is primary CMV. And in this case it is extremely dangerous for a future baby. There are many ways helping the doctor to find out whether the fetus is infected with this virus.
These tests will help to reveal anomalies of a baby. A delay of development in general, anomalies of brain, a microcephaly, oligohydraminos, and other signs can become the illustration that CMV has got into the baby’s organism. However even satisfactory result of ultrasound doesn’t give absolute guarantee of absence of infection, as aberrations can be absolutely paltry.
It is one of the most effective and reliable ways of determination of CMV of a fetus. It represents the test of amniotic fluid. It can be done from the 21st week of pregnancy, but not earlier than after seven weeks from the moment of supposed infection. Negative result of such test – is an excellent guarantee that the baby will be healthy.
In case when confirmation of virus’s present in amniotic fluid is got, it is necessary to make the test of PCR (it is the quantitative test which shows the total number of viruses). High virus loading – is a signal of the increased danger.
This loading is measured in quantity of sets of DNA of cytomegalovirus (copies on a milliliter):
- if this indicator is <10*3, then the probability of the birth of a healthy baby is 81 %;
- ≥10*3, probability of penetration of the virus into a fetus is 100 %;
- <10*5, it is 92% guarantee that you can expect that the baby after the birth will have no displays of any CMV symptoms;
- ≥10*5, means that the baby will have marked symptoms of the virus.
In the last case doctors usually insist on abortion.
Is it Necessary to Abort?
If the virus is found, then you shouldn’t rush into panic at once. It isn’t necessary always to go to the extreme measures.
There are following indicators according to which it is obligatory to abort:
- primary infection with cytomegalovirus during pregnancy;
- if obvious anomalies in development of a baby are found out by the results of ultrasonography;
- identification of presence of innate CMV of the baby by the tests of amniotic fluid of a high risk.
How to Treat CMV During Pregnancy?
In a case when risk degree of baby’s infection is low, the doctor prescribes the treatment with following medicine:
- Anti-Cytomegaloviral immunoglobulin of the person (Neo-Tsitotekt). It has in its basis the antibodies received from blood of the people who have had CMV and developed immunity to it. This immunoglobulin reduces degree of placenta inflammation, helps to cope with the virus, reduces risk of a possibility of baby’s infection.
- Immunoglobulin against CMV is prescribed during primary CMV infection, when the avidity of antibodies to IgG to CMV is low, when it is found directly in the amniotic fluid.
Prevention of a Cytomegalovirus During Pregnancy
If the existence of cytomegalovirus in the woman’s organism during the pregnancy hasn’t been confirmed, anyway she should be attentive and carefully adhere to all precautions. The main idea is not to become infected with the virus, so that not to communicate the infection to a future baby. It is important to know that in most cases small children are carriers and distributors of cytomegalovirus. Therefore each pregnant woman should seriously think of limiting her time spending with small children as much as possible, for the sake of herself and the baby.