Pregnancy Blood Test
Blood during pregnancy represents rather valuable material for research: first, procedure of capture of blood on the analysis (from finger or from vein) is very simple, not traumatic and does not demand any expensive equipment, and second, ingredients of blood are changed in a characteristic way depending on the processes happening in organism and, therefore, the changes found at blood test have important diagnostic value.
Obligatory Blood Tests During Pregnancy
Purpose of clinical (general) blood test (blood taken from finger) at least four times during pregnancy is obligatory:
- till 12 weeks of pregnancy;
- in 20-21 weeks;
- in 28-30 weeks;
- before childbirth.
The general blood test during pregnancy is investigated also at deviation from the normal course of pregnancy, emergence of associated diseases. Let's list the main indicators defined at clinical blood test, and consider their value.
Normal at pregnancy it is considered small decrease in level of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit (that part of volume of blood which falls to the share of erythrocytes) 2. Sizes of erythrocytes, their saturation thus are not broken by hemoglobin. Can increase some total quantity of leukocytes. Significantly ESR changes: by the end of pregnancy it increases almost by 3 times. ESR remains raised and within month after the delivery.
If in general blood test during pregnancy considerable decrease in erythrocytes and hemoglobin is found, it testifies to development of terrible complication of pregnancy – anemia. The reasons of anemia can be different, for their specification, perhaps, it is necessary to make biochemical analysis of blood and to specify the content of iron in serum. Timely diagnosis and competent treatment of anemia allow to avoid many complications of course of pregnancy, including air hunger of fruit, lag of its development, premature births.
Changes of ratio of different forms of leukocytes, the essential increase in their total quantity (leukocytosis), sharp increase in ESR can testify to availability of inflammatory process in organism. Perhaps, it is connected with exacerbation of any chronic infectious disease against the general decrease in immunity during pregnancy. Anyway these changes have to guard the doctor. It is necessary to specify the diagnosis and to carry out the corresponding treatment.
At decrease in level of thrombocytes conditions of coagulant system of blood during pregnancy conduct additional special researches – after all the quantity of thrombocytes in certain degree characterizes readiness of coagulant system of blood to prevent considerable blood loss at childbirth.
As a rule, the biochemical composition of blood during pregnancy (for this research blood is taken from vein) is three times investigated. With its help the exchange, iron exchange (serumal iron, the general iron-binding ability, transferrin3), function of kidneys (urea, uric acid, creatinine, electrolytes), liver (bilirubin, enzymes) are estimated carbohydrate (glucose), proteinaceous (crude protein, albumine, globulins), lipidic (the general lipids, cholesterol).
Let's list the main indicators of biochemical analysis of blood during pregnancy (in the form with results of the analysis this list can be expanded or reduced depending on opportunities of laboratory and research objective).
Additional Blood Tests During Pregnancy
If necessary (availability of the corresponding indications) the attending physician can appoint the pregnant woman blood test to sugar (blood thus take from finger, often at the same time with material capture on the clinical analysis). According to indications (for example, at hyper tone of uterus and suspicion on hyperandrogenis) hormonal research is conducted. There is a special wish to stop on condition of thyroid gland which during pregnancy works more intensively. As we live in the iodine deficiency district, definition of thyroid hormones all pregnant would be optimum.
For exception of rough pre-natal malformations of nervous system of fruit blood test on alpha-fetoprotein is carried out (blood take from vein). At increase of its level in blood additional methods of prenatal diagnosis and the solution of question of destiny of this pregnancy together with the doctor geneticist are required. In case of suspicion on pre-natal infection its activator comes to light by means of immunological methods (in blood is defined either antigens of the activator, or antibody to it).
In this article we, of course, could not acquaint you with all diseases which change these or those indicators of blood. However we also did not set before ourselves such purpose. We only wanted to show need by means of bright examples and to explain value of such simple laboratory method of research as blood test during pregnancy. We hope that could convince you of how its results in early diagnosis of different diseases can appear the useful. It would be desirable to pay once again your attention that terms and frequency rate of laboratory researches are determined by the attending physician therefore if he directs you on the analysis seeming to you "superfluous", most likely, it has for this purpose for good reasons.